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Seleucid Triumph

By: Imajin


Seleucid Emperors
Seleucus I Nicator 305–281 BC
Antiochus I Soter 281–261 BC
Antiochus II Theos 286-246 BC
Seleucus II Pogon 246-226 BC
Antiochus III Hierax 226-223 BC
Antiochus IV the Great 223-180 BC
Seleucus IV Philopator 180-175 BC
Demetrius I Balas 175-147 BC
Demetrius II Nicator 147-120 BC
Cleopatra I Tryphaena 120-109 BC
Seleucus V Philadelphus 109-84 BC
Antiochus V the Great 84-59 BC
Antiochus VI Grypus 59-20 BC
Demetrius III Philopator 20-19 BC
Antiochus VII Soter 19 BC-1 AD
Demetrius IV Nicator 1-23 AD
Seleucus V Bactrianos 23-31 AD
Antiochus VIII Philopator 31-69 AD
Antiochus IX Grypus 69-75 AD
Demetrius V Balas 75-87 AD
Nicephoros I Archon 87-100 AD
Nicephorus II the Great 100-141 AD
Amyntas I Philometor 141-150 AD
(Archelaus 150 AD)
Demetrius VI Keraunos 151-161 AD
Amyntas II Balas 161-188 AD
Antiochus X Philadelphus 188-190 AD
Cleopatra II Thea 190-197 AD
Antiochus XI Philoromaeus 197-210 AD
Amyntas III Persicus 210-227 AD
(Andronicus 212-220 AD)
Seleucus VI Ducas 225-241 AD
Phillipicus Autokrator 225-261 AD
Seleucus VII 261-264 AD
Arsinoe Soteira 264-270 AD
Amyntas IV Hellene 270-301 AD
Amyntas V Kybiosaktes 301-340 AD
Demetrius VII Cyclops 340-351 AD
Seleucus VIII Grypus 351-371 AD
Cleopatra III Thea 372-374 AD
Demetrius IX Philometor 374-386 AD
Nicephoros III Seleucus 386-399 AD
Seleucus IX Philopersis 397-407 AD
Seleucus X Basileus 408-423 AD
Amyntas VI Chronokrator 423-441 AD
Seleucus XI Nicator 441-445 AD


Antiochus II Theos ruled from 286 to 246 BC, inheriting a war with the Ptolemaic Kingdom over Egypt. He managed to lead his forces to victory, forcing the Ptolemies to retreat back to Egypt in 254 BC. However, this victory came at a price, as in 255 the outlying province of Bactria broke from the Seleucid Kingdom. Determined to maintain his kingdom, in 250 BC he forced the barbarian lord Arsaces out of the province of Parthia, which remained a Seleucid possession. From then on, his reign had a period of peace until his wife, in order to bring her son to the throne, poisoned him.

Seleucus II Pogon reigned from 246 to 226 BC. His reign began with an alliance between the Hellenistic Kingdoms in Egypt and Asia Minor against the Seleucid state. In 241 BC, Seleucus was forced to abandon Antioch for Seleucia on the Tigris after the Attalid Kingdom threatened the city. In 240, after inflicting victories over the Ptolemies and forcing them out of Palestine, Seleucus made peace, ceding his possessions in large areas of Asia Minor to the Attalids but conceding nothing to the Ptolemies. However, in 226 BC his brother Antiochus Hierax seized control of the Empire for himself, committing fratricide.

Antiochus III Hierax ruled only three years, from 226 to 223 BC. During his reign, the capital of the Empire was shifted definitively from Antioch on the Orontes to the larger city of Seleucia on the Tigris. In 225, war broke out again with the Ptolemies of Egypt, and rebellion broke out in Syria and Pars. Soon after, Antiochus, the eldest surviving son of Seleucus II, took the throne of the Seleucid Empire, as Judea fell to the invaders.

Antiochus IV the Great reigned from 223 to 180 BC. In the beginning of his reign, he swiftly led an army to crush the Syrian revolt, which went down to work on expelling the Ptolemies from Judea. The war first met with problems, however, as the Attalids came down from the north to attempt to rekindle the Syrian revolt, and his armies met with defeat. However, the Ptolemaic armies were overcome, and pushed back to Alexandria on the Nile, while the Attalids met with little success against the troops left in Syria. The Ptolemaic Kingdom was subjugated to Antiochus' state, while the Attalids were forced to cede the land of Cappadocia in 214 BC. Antiochus headed east, to crush the Persian revolt and secure his reign there, taking the Persian title of Great King, in Greek Megas Basileus, where he also gets his subtitle "the Great". From then on, he attempted to expand his domains into western Asia Minor, and Greece. Here, he met with limited success until hitting the massive powerhouse that was the Roman Empire. Forced to retreat, the island of Cyprus, nominally a Seleucid vassal, was lost. His son, Seleucus, succeeded him.

Seleucus IV Philopator reigned from 180 BC to 175 BC over a realm stretching from Cilicia and Cappadocia to the borders of Bactria. He was a wealthy king, and ordered the construction of many cities, mostly named "Seleucia" after himself or "Antioch" after his father, across the Persian provinces, which led to a greater spread of Hellenistic Greek culture across his Empire. He was succeeded by his first son, Demetrius.

Demetrius I Balas was Seleucid Emperor from 175 BC to 147 BC. His early reign was marked by failure, when revolts caused by the Maccabee Jewish army caused the provinces of Judea and Idumea to erupt in revolt. He led an army into the province in 170 BC, sacking Jerusalem and defiling the Temple. This, while temporarily calming the revolt, only caused more problems later on, when the revolt returned in 167 BC, with Ptolemaic support. In 165 BC Demetrius was forced to concede loss of the provinces to the newly established Hasmonean Kingdom, a vassal of Egypt. In 163, however, attempted revolts in other provinces proved failures, and Cyprus' loyalty was regained. In 160, he launched an invasion of the Attalid Kingdom, annexing a number of border regions and the city of Trebizond. He forced many border concessions from the small Kingdom of Armenia, which was vassalized to his state. In 155, he attempted an invasion of the Bactrian Kingdom, which ended in failure in 147 and his death. He was succeeded by Demetrius II, his son.

Demetrius II Nicator ruled the Seleucid Empire from 147 to 120 BC. In 145 he made peace with the Bactrian Kingdom, and repelled another barbarian invasion of Parthia after heavy losses, and lost the Pontus region to the Roman puppet states in Greece, which was rapidly falling under Roman domination. In 125 BC, he married Cleopatra Tryphaena, a daughter of the Egyptian king. He rapidly fell under the domination of his wife, who had him deposed in 120 and led as sole ruler.

Cleopatra I Tryphaena ruled over the Seleucid domains for eleven years, from 120 BC to 109 BC. She faced revolts from Syria, Cappadocia, and Cilicia; however, these were put down and secured her reign. During her reign, a number of claimants to the throne were executed, leaving the succession clear for her son, Seleucus Philadelphus. Cleopatra is one of the first Seleucid monarchs known to worship the Mesopotamian gods in addition, and sometimes in place of, the Greek pantheon, a practice that rapidly grew even while the Empire Hellenized in other ways.

Seleucus V Philadelphus ruled from 109 to 84 BC, over an Empire that was losing it's focus in Greece. Expelled from Cappadocia in favor of the remnant Attalid kingdom, a Roman vassal, he did manage to invade the Bactrian Kingdom, making it part of the Seleucid state in 90 BC. However, six years later, he was assassinated by his power-hungry son, Antiochus Epiphanes.

Antiochus V the Great was Seleucid monarch from 84 to 59 BC. While at the beginning of his reign, the general Lysimachus seized control of the provinces in Bactria and India as his own kingdom, he recovered lands in the West. His title the Great refers to his victories over the decaying Ptolemaic kingdom, which he took the Hasmonean state from in 75, and seized Alexandria in 69 BC. However, this was not met well by the Romans, who invaded his kingdom and took the provinces. In 60 BC, the city of Antioch fell as well, and the king made peace, ceding his possessions in Cappadocia and Trebizond to Rome, and losing Egypt to a Ptolemaic claimant supported by Rome. However, he held on to the province of Judea. In his late years, he moved the capital back to Antioch on the Orontes.

Antiochus VI Grypus was Seleucid ruler for a long thirty-nine years, from 59 to 20 BC. During his reign, the attempted Hellenization of Judea ended, and the province was placed under the control of a Jewish governor, Herod. In 50 BC, he attempted an invasion of Cilicia, which was fought off by Rome, and resulted in the sacking of Antioch on the Orontes and the return of the capital to Seleucia on the Tigris. Near the end of his reign, Armenia was forced to become vassalized again, and a civil war broke out in the Roman territories.

Demetrius III Philopator, the brother of childless Antiochus VI, was Seleucid ruler for only one year, from 20 BC to 19 BC. His reign was overall marked by his death after only one year, and not much else.

Antiochus VII Soter came to power in 19 BC after the death of his grandfather, Demetrius III Philopator, and ruled until his death in 1 AD. During his reign, the Roman Republic became the Roman Empire, and forced his nation to cede the province of Cilicia when he attempted to use the civil war as a land grab. In 4 BC, Zoroastrian magi were captured in Judea, as Zoroastrianism was not tolerated in the Seleucid state. The magi informed him that they had heard the birth of a new King in Bethlehem. Seeing this as a threat to his reign, he ordered the destruction of Bethlehem and all infants within, though the child mentioned escaped to Roman Egypt. The king died that same year.

Demetrius IV Nicator was a Seleucid ruler who ruled from 1 AD to 23 AD, and brother of Antiochus VII. Early during his reign, campaigns in the Arabian Peninsula brought the Himyar and the city-states of the eastern Arabian coast. However, this expansion along the Red Sea angered Rome, which invaded the Seleucid state in 5 AD. The Romans were expelled after a long campaign, and parts of Cappadocia were gained by the Seleucids. Late in Demetrius' reign, the Bactrian/Indo-Greek Kingdom appealed to the Seleucids for aid. In return for defeating the Indo-Scythian and Kushan invasions, Demetrius took the province of Bactria, and when the Indo-Greek King died, he placed his second son Seleucus on the throne of the kingdom in 20 AD.

Seleucus V Bactrianos ruled over the remains of the Bactrian kingdom from 20 AD to 23 AD, and united it with the main Seleucid domains after forcing his elder brother, Antiochus (later Antiochus VIII), to surrender his claims to the throne. He continued to rule over both states until his death in 31 AD. His reign focused on the east, as he brought the Indo-Greek territories into the Seleucid fold, and neglected the West. In the east, his accomplishments are very impressive, as the wealthy trading lands of southern India were brought into his command, and the Kushan threat was ended. However, elsewhere he was less successful. He was forced to agree to a partition of Armenia with Rome in 25 AD, and later traded most of Seleucid Asia Minor, ancient possessions that had been held almost to the beginning of the Kingdom, for the island of Cyprus, which was not worth as much. He was dethroned by his elder brother Antiochus in 31 AD, and fled to Ceylon, where he was betrayed and killed.

Antiochus VIII Philopator ruled from 31 AD to 69 AD over a massive realm that controlled everything between western India and Palestine. Seleucia during his reign was a massive center of learning and philosophy, where Jewish rabbi conversed with Buddhists, and culture flourished. He was also a great military commander: in war with Rome, he regained the provinces of Cilicia and Cappadocia, as well as the region of Arabia Petraea (Sinai Peninsula) as a buffer. In India, it is written that he built no less than five Antiochias, three Demetrias, and two Seleucias during his rule there, and he maintained the Indian borders of Bactrianos's reign. He fathered three sons and one daughter, two of which would take the throne later on. He died in his sixties after a long reign, with the Empire secured.

Antiochus IX Grypus ruled from 69 AD to 75 AD, and was the eldest son of Antiochus VIII, and came near to destroying his father’s accomplishments. A power-hungry man, he assigned his friends jobs in the provinces of Judea, Persia, and India, where the Governorship had traditionally gone to local leaders loyal to the regime. In response, revolts erupted, starting with Judea in 72 AD. While it was put down, India soon followed. With Antiochus IX busy in the East, Rome attacked, rekindling the Jewish revolt for it's own ends. After India was put down, Antiochus was forced to an incredibly humiliating peace with Rome, where almost all of his father’s gains there were wiped out, and Judea became a Roman Province. He was killed by his brother Demetrius in 75 AD after these losses.

Demetrius V Balas was ruler of the Empire from 75 AD to 87 AD, and ruling Syria until 90 AD. Unable to make gains against Rome, he looked for victory in India, building a great fleet to war against Lanka (Ceylon). After the rulers of the island submitted to him, he resumed complete rule in the provinces of Himyar, which had been near independent. However, he realized the massive logistical problems facing the Seleucid Kingdom, and greatly expanded the size of the army. He also divided the land into two Archonates, himself as Archon in Mesopotamia, Arabia, Persia, and Syria, while the general Nicephoros headed the eastern half. However, this plan backfired when the general Nicephoros proved untrustworthy, and dethroned Demetrius. Demetrius fled to Antioch, where he ruled over Syria until killed in 90 AD.

Nicephoros I Archon was Archon of the East from 85 to 87 AD, and Seleucid ruler from 87 to 100 AD. When he took the throne, Lanka and South India promptly rebelled, and Nicephoros was forced to concede independence to the rebelling lands. He subdued Syria in 90 AD, killing Demetrius V. However, Demetrius' son, Diogenes, requested Roman aid in gaining the throne. Rome was glad to comply, and invaded the Seleucid Empire, installing Diogenes as Seleucus VI Diogenes in Antioch. However, the invasion stalled in Syria, and the claimed Seleucus VI was captured in battle in the province of Assyria. The Syrian War, however, resulted in the loss of Antioch on the Orontes to the Roman Empire. A great fire consumed the city that same year, and a Roman colony was built on the site. Nicephoros was also forced to concede the province of Chorasmia in the north to barbarian raids, and generally lost many territories.

Nicephorus II the Great, the last Seleucid Emperor to be called the Great, ruled from 100 to 141 AD. His radical reforming of the Empire is often agreed to have given the slowly decaying Seleucid state a new lease on life, and governmental systems put in place by him would last until Antiochus XI and the collapse of the Empire. He also wiped out the independence of the Kingdom of Armenia, as well as a few small Indian states that were Seleucid vassals. In fact, since Nicephorus and his father were usurpers with only dubious connections to the line of Seleucus, some historians have argued that the Nicephorans represent a clean break- essentially a "Nicephoran Empire" that replaced the Seleucid Empire. This view is not, however, taken seriously by the author of this work. Nicephorus II was a brilliant tactican, leading the Seleucid armies to a decisive victory over the Roman legions in the War of the Orontes, capturing much of Roman Asia Minor, and regaining Judea. The resulting loss caused a civil war within the Roman Empire, which would eventually cause a return to the Roman Republic, with the Senate taking a more dominant role. In the East, his victories were just as spectacular. He reconquered the southern Deccan and Lanka, while the Salankayana Kingdom was vassalized- which, while breaking Nicephorus II's policies on vassals, did prove to be a wise move. Shortly prior to Nicephorus's death, he instituted a succession law that he hoped would prevent large succession disputes, and did work until Antiochus XI.

Amyntas I Philometor ruled the Seleucid Empire from 141 AD to 150 AD. His epithet refers to the fact that until 145, his reign was dominated by his mother, the Queen Cleopatra. His reign was characterized by a long war with the resurgent Roman Republic over Asia Minor, a conflict that proved indecisive. However, the efforts put forth in Asia Minor caused a successful rebellion in Himyar, and a general decay of Seleucid possessions on the Red Sea. In 150 AD he was found killed in his bedroom, and the General Archelaus attempted to seize power.

Demetrius VI Keraunos ruled Seleucid India from 150 to 161 AD, and the entire Seleucid Empire from 151 to 161 AD. During the period of 150 AD after Amyntas I's death, the general Archelaus ruled in Seleucia while Demetrius prepared for a strike while making his temporary capital in the Indian Hellenistic city of Demetria. In late 150 armies loyal to him crossed the Hindu Kush, and a large number of Archelaus's forces defected to him, and Seleucia fell to him by the beginning of the next year. Demetrius ordered Archelaus struck from all records, the generals victories to be attributed to Demetrius or his father. However, as the civil war raged Rome regained Galatia in Asia Minor, and seemed on it's way to regaining Cilicia when Demetrius could finally muster forces to stop the Republic. For the remainder of his reign, he worked to prevent the intermittent Arab raids on his Near Eastern provinces by attacking Arabia, and regained Chorasmia up to the Aral Sea from it's barbarian rulers.

Amyntas II Balas was Emperor of the Seleucid Empire from 161 to 188 AD. He made it a particular goal of his to liberate Greece, Macedon, and Egypt from the Roman Republic, a goal that was not totally realized. In 162 Thessaly erupted in revolt. Not a man to miss a chance, Amyntas promised support for the rebels and led massive armies, complete with war elephants, towards Alexandria and Ionia. The Romans decided to concentrate on Greece, managing to crush the Thessalian revolt before any major aid could arrive from Amyntas, and heading off the assault before it could even reach the coast. However, Egypt fell, and soon a siege began of the Roman colony of Capitoliana (Cyrene). With reinforcements arriving in Asia Minor, Rome was forced to agree to give up the wealthy province of Egypt in 165 AD, a loss that greatly angered many in Rome. It led to the rise of the Roman General Lucius, who established the Second Roman Empire in 167. True to his word, he seized Alexandria in a lightning attack in 170, and marched onward to greater victory. Shocked, Amyntas decided to attempt another two-front strategy. However, he was distracted by problems in India, and facing invasions on all sides, he agreed to give up Egypt and defeated the barbarian threat, reclaiming Chorasmia.

Antiochus X Philadelphus, who ruled from 188 to 190, is generally seen as a weak-willed ruler, unable to control the loss of his Red Sea cities and other lands to the Arabs. In 189, a massive pan-Hellenic revolt shocked the Roman Empire, which for a time had no authority whatsoever south of Thessalonica. Philadelphus, however, failed to capture the opportunity and allowed the Greeks to be cut down by vengeful Romans. Many Greeks were expelled from their cities, resulting in a population boost for Seleucid Asia Minor and more Hellenic settlement in Armenia. In 190 Antiochus X died in his sleep.

Cleopatra II Thea was the only child of Antiochus X, and by the laws put in place by Nicephorus II ruled the Seleucid Empire from 190 to 197 AD. A patron of the arts and sciences, she ordered the building of several magnificent temples across the capital of Seleucia, as well as completing a massive restoration of Persepolis, which again became a major city, though now a Hellenistic one. She married Antiochus of the line of Demetrius V, which led to disaster, as trying to gain more power for him, Antiochus had Cleopatra II killed in 197. Antiochus XI's reign would destroy much of the gains made in the Nicephoran Age.

Antiochus XI Philoromaeus was Emperor in Seleucia from 197 to 210 AD. His reign was characterized by a complete hatred of everything that came out of the Nicephoran Age. His first act undid the reform of the provincial governorships. In the past, Hellenized local leaders loyal to the Great King had been granted high positions in government, which both encouraged Hellenization and kept revolts down. This all changed, as Antiochus replaced governors with loyalists. In 200, he dethroned the Head Governor for all India, the Punjabi noble Rajuvulos, to replace him with loyalist Telephos. Telephos was a harsh ruler, who cared little for his people, and overtaxed them to gain funds for themselves. In 202, Rajuvulos led a revolt against Antiochus that soon spread across India, with support from the Salankayana Kingdom. In 205, Antiochus was forced to retreat across the Hindu Kush, creating the Neo-Bactrian or Rajuvulid Kingdom. Meanwhile, the remaining possessions across the Persian Gulf in Arabia were eaten up, the Seleucids only remaining in the island of Bahrain. Far worse losses were to come, however. The Romans attacked Anatolia and Syria, and in battle, captured Antiochus XI and smashed his great army, heading into Mesopotamia. The Romans were able to force huge concessions from Antiochus, losing Syria, Asia Minor, Armenia, and the entire Mediterranean Coast. From this he gained the insulting epithet of "Rome-lover", while Lucius V, Roman Emperor, finally did what no Roman ruler had done before: make the Mediterranean Ocean a Roman Lake. He went on to conquer the client states of Gallia and Tingitania into the Empire, and the Seleucid Empire descended into Anarchy.

Amyntas III Persicus ruled in Seleucia from 210 AD to 212 AD, and from Persepolis to 220 AD, when he returned to the West and ruled until his death in 227. The descendent of the line of Nicephoros II through Amyntas II, his reign is sometimes called the "Nicephoran Restoration". During his reign, he attempted to hold the Empire together, but failed miserably. In 212 the nobility declared Andronicus of Assyria the true ruler, and Amyntas III was forced to retreat to Persepolis, where he organized an army. At this time Antiochus Philoromaeus attempted to regain his throne, attacking both Andronicus' army and Amyntas. The two competing Emperors joined forces to expel him, and he fled to the northern semi-barbarian province of Chorasmia, where he established himself as King in Urgench. Amyntas and Andronicus then focused on each other, eventually drawing a line from the Caspian to the Persian Gulf. At this time, Seleucia decided to declare for Amyntas over Andronicus. In revenge, Andronicus had his army sack the city, carting off its valuables, and moving them to a new capital built in old Assyria, called Andronicia. Amyntas struck again, and much of Andronicus' support destroyed with Seleucia, his army fell apart and the provinces of Mesopotamia and Assyria surrendered to Amyntas. Amyntas rebuilt Seleucia, but also rebuilt Babylon as a new, grander city, and made his capital there.

Seleucus VI Ducas ruled in Babylon from 225 to 241 AD, ruling an Empire that was a shadow of the greatness it held less than fifty years before. However, in a stroke of luck, in 229 the period of Roman History called the Time of Five Lucii (Many of the Roman Emperors of the Second Imperial Period took the cognomen Lucius after the founder of the Second Empire) began, and Rome began to tear itself apart. Even the weak army of Seleucus VI managed to take Syria and most of Armenia, though Judea made a deal with Rome to become a vassal state and fought fiercely against the Seleucid. He established relations with the Rajuvulid state, and attempted to capture Chorasmia, a kingdom ruled by the descendants of Antiochus XI that still claimed the entire Kingdom. The Chorasmians fought Ducas's armies off, and retained their status as independent.

Phillipicus Autokrator ruled from Babylon to 261 AD. He ruled the Empire with an iron fist, and crushed rebellions mercilessly. Outside of the Empire, he did not attack the Romans, who were regaining strength after their civil war at a rapid rate, but instead invaded Arabia, capturing several major trading centers, including Yathrib. He made a much greater effort to subdue the interior tribes, leaving his rule of Arabia far more stable than the past rulers. He is often criticized, however, for his harsh rule, and his failure to expand into territories that were truly worthwhile. His campaigns against Arabia are often seen as simply ploys to portray himself as a great military conqueror.

Seleucus VII did not have an epithet, for he only ruled three years, from 261 to 264 AD. He did war against Rome, but his battles only resulted in the fall of the island of Cyprus to him and no gains in Asia Minor or Judea. He died of a plague that struck Babylon in 264, and forced a removal of the capital back to Seleucia, which was not hit as hard.

Arsinoe Soteira was the mother of Amyntas IV, but ruled in her own right from 264 to 270. After her husband died of the plague, she returned the court to Seleucia to great applause. She attempted to rule as an Empress in her own right, exiling the youth Amyntas to Chorasmia as a prisoner, and going on campaign against the formerly allied Rajuvulid/Indo-Greek Kingdom. She allied with the Salankayanas, who grabbed much of the Deccan, but was betrayed by them and forced to retreat back to the former borders. In late 269, Amyntas was released by the Chorasmian Seleucids and after a short resistance, captured Seleucia and had Arsinoe forced into exile in the desert of Arabia, where she died soon after.

Amyntas IV Hellene ruled the Seleucid Empire from 270 to 301 at its greatest extent in the west, finally realizing a great Seleucid goal, though only due to circumstances in the west. In 271 the Gothic tribes migrated into Roman territory. At first they seemed content in foederate lands in Gaul, but soon moved on southwards demanding tribute. When they did not get it, they moved into Greece and sacked it, ransacking the Roman Garrison before retreating back to Gaul, leaving Greece in ruins. Amyntas did not wait for a better opportunity, marching a revived army into Greece to fill the gaps left by Rome. As Rome faced more barbarian attacks, they could not fill the gap left in Greece, and were forced to concede. Amyntas found Greece in ruins, however, and heavily Latinized by the Romans. Thousands of Hellenized Persians and Mesopotamians were brought into Greece to resettle Latin cities, and the province was forcibly re-Hellenized. After sinking thousands of pounds of gold into rebuilding Greece, Amyntas died in Athens, not realizing that before his heir's death, all of his gains would be lost- as would Persia.

Amyntas V Kybiosaktes ruled the Seleucid Empire from 301 to 340 AD. At the start of his reign, Rome seemed weaker than ever. The Goths ruled over Gaul, Suebi lords held reign in Hispania, and the Vandals had raped and pillaged their way across Mauretania and Old Africa. However, Amyntas did not realize the Romans plans. The Roman Emperor Romulus I had abandoned the western provinces, keeping his eyes set on one goal: Greece. Amyntas V, meanwhile, lay blissfully unaware of this in Babylon, believing Rome to be doomed. Soon, however, at the head of an army he had to preside over the destruction of his father's work in Greece, his armies being pushed back to Byzantium. As Amyntas prepared for another attack, the walls of the stronghold would be breached, and Amyntas was almost killed by the Roman General who captured the city. However, said General had his eyes on the purple, and instead of killing the hapless Seleucid he made a deal. Amyntas retreated back to Antioch, while the General came to Rome in triumph. Amyntas V faced no less that five assassination attempts in Babylon, and the threats to his rule grew after Armenia broke away, it's king Tigranes not even theoretically subject to Babylon. After he was narrowly killed by his son Seleucus in 321 AD, he tightened the noose across the Empire, which erupted in rebellion. The Roman Emperor, Lucius VIII, the same general who has spared Amyntas' life, invaded Asia Minor and Syria, while the Indo-Greeks gave aid to a revolt in Persia. In 331 AD the Romans captured Syria, and forced him to make peace, while the revolt in Persia spread across all the provinces. Amyntas' greatest general, Alexander, who was sent to put down the rebellion, instead joined it in 336, and was proclaimed the King of Persia by his troops. He was forced to concede independence to the new dynasty in 338. In 340, the small Decapolis region proclaimed itself a Republic allied with Rome. It was in battle against this much smaller group of rebels that Amyntas was cut down.

Demetrius VII Cyclops ruled Mesopotamia from 340 AD to 351 AD. He was the youngest brother of Amyntas Kybiosaktes, and had lost an eye in battle with the Romans. During his reign, the Franks, defeated by the Gallic Visigoths, crossed the Alps into Italy. Seeing weakness, Demetrius funded a Christian revolt across Egypt, hoping to gain a valuable ally, while invading Syria for himself. He recaptured Antioch, while the Romans were expelled from Alexandria and Jerusalem. However, the completely independent Egyptian and Judean kingdoms were not interested in the yoke of the Seleucids, and refused to even send troops when Demetrius attempted to recapture Persia.

Seleucus VIII Grypus returned the capital to Seleucia in 351 AD, and ruled there until 371 AD. His connections to the Seleucid dynasty, which he through Cleopatra Thea, were most like falsified to gain legitimacy in the realm. He attempted an invasion of the Decapolis, which resulted in a sacking of Damascus but eventual expulsion. His reign did coincide, however, with the end of the Second Roman Empire, and the beginning of the Second Kingdom. The new Kingdom was radically different than past rulers, as its dynasty was not Roman in the least- it was the Franks, who seized Rome in 359 AD and had themselves granted the laurels. A barbarian ruled the eternal city, and with it the Roman possessions in Greece and Asia Minor. Seleucus took advantage of the chaos in Rome to lead an army against them in 361 AD, but after initial gains the King Chlovius I was able to prevent the Seleucids from expanding. He clashed with both the Greco-Persians and the Armenians, and failed to conquer either, and was only spared from conquest himself when the Greco-Persian Kingdom was invaded by the Indo-Greeks in 370 AD. He died soon after.

Cleopatra III Thea was a princess of the Indo-Persian Kingdom who married the legitimate heir to the Seleucids, Demetrius, in 369. However, in 370 Demetrius was held as a hostage by the Greco-Persians, and Cleopatra demanded the throne at Seleucus' death. She ruled only for a short time, until 374 AD. She put down a revolt in Antioch in 373 AD, but did not live long after her victory. Demetrius was released near the end of that year, and disguised as a palace servant, poisoned Cleopatra, revealed himself, and took the throne.

Demetrius IX Philometor ruled from 374 AD to 386 AD. His epithet, "mother-loving", was used as an insult by his opponents due to his murder of Cleopatra III. He attempted to reform the Seleucid military, long in decay and weakness. His new armies did bring great success against Rome, and he captured Cilicia and the interior of Asia Minor. But the Greco-Persians also had a strong military, and were undaunted by Demetrius' armies. Demetrius spent much of his twelve-year reign on campaign against Persia and Rome, spending little time in Seleucia. This would prove to his detriment, when his own son seized the capital in 385, and gained enough support from Mesopotamia that Demetrius was forced to concede the throne in 386.

Nicephoros III Seleucus was born Seleucus, son of Demetrius IX. He took the name Nicephoros, however, as an attempt to hearken back to Nicephoros the Great, who brought victory to a dying Empire. His reign, from 386 to 399, however, did not see victory or decay, only a status quo. This was not on purpose: Nicephoros believed himself to be a great commander, but records of the battles fought against Rome in 390 show him to have been lucky to hold onto the borders created by his father. The Greco-Persian Kingdom invaded Mesopotamia in 397, and Nicephoros retreated to Antioch as the Greco-Persians placed Seleucus IX on the throne as a puppet. In 399, the armies marching across the Seleucid kingdom took Antioch and ended Nicephoros' reign. The once-great Seleucid Empire was reduced to a puppet, of Persia no less.

Seleucus IX Philopersis was placed on the Seleucid throne in 397, and ruled until 407. In 400 AD, the Persians demanded the provinces of Cappadocia, Cilicia, Seleucid Armenia, and Assyria, reducing the Empire to Babylonia and Syria. Meanwhile, Egypt became a rising power, annexing Judea after a long siege (Jewish writings blame the loss on a plague, Egyptian records cite only the strength of their army) and later taking the Decapolis cities. Seleucus IX was dethroned in 407 and replaced with his brother, who took the name Seleucus.

Seleucus X Basileus was a loyal vassal of Persia from 408 to 423 AD. His reign was an even greater failure than that of his father, as losses to Egypt in 410 forced the Seleucid armies in Syria to retreat across the Syrian Desert, a march that killed many of them. The Persians increased their demands on the Seleucids more and more, and the Megas Basileus became little more than a man with a fancy title. As a result, the titles claimed by the rulers grew grander and grander. In 420 AD, Seleucus X began titling himself the "Kosmokrator", the "Lord of all the Universe". In 423 a revolt broke out in Assyria, and proclaimed Seleucus X the true King. Not wanting a threat to their reign, Seleucus X was killed and his son Amyntas took the throne.

Amyntas VI Chronokrator ruled in name only from 423 to 441 AD. During his reign, the Persians ruled Babylonia as a province, even appointing several governors. Amyntas was fine with this. He was uninterested in ruling, and only cared about himself. Because of this, he was allowed to keep the throne. His epithet refers to the title by which he referred himself, the "Ruler of All Time". The Egyptians overthrew their King in this year, and proclaimed a religious state headed by the Patriarch of Alexandria, supreme head of the Christian Religion (which also had minor patriarchates in Damascus, Jerusalem, and Babylon- Christianity had caught on greatly in that city). The Rajuvalid Indo-Greek Kingdom abandoned its small Deccan holdings, but conquered up to the Ganges. Amyntas died in 441 AD of natural causes, and was replaced with Seleucus XI- the last Emperor.

Seleucus XI Nicator ruled from 441 AD to 445 AD. His reign was marked by a revolt he started against the Persians that soon spread all the way to Asia Minor. In 443, Seleucus ruled an Empire stretching from Cappadocia to Armenia. It was not going to last long, however. Seleucus was forced to evacuate Seleucia in 444 AD, and in 445 Antioch fell. Seleucus, who had converted to Christianity, was sentenced to exile in the Egyptian State, where he would play a massive role in that state's future. However, for the time being, the Seleucid Empire was dead.

The Effects on Rome

The effects of the great Seleucid state caused somewhat of a panic in the hallowed halls of the Senate. As Seleucia made moves into Greece, Rome feared that its Greek allies might turn on them as easily as Rome had them turn on the Seleucids, especially with Seleucid control of wealthy Persia. This resulted in a general distrust of the Roman allies in Asia Minor, and the Senate was far more quick to directly take lands in the East. After the Third Macedonian War, Thrace and Macedon were directly taken into the Roman fold rather than let them sit under untrustworthy puppets. The Romans would have troubles in Greece, especially with strong attempts at Romanizing the population. The cities of Athens, Corinth, and Byzantium would all attempt to rebel one by one, and each was mercilessly crushed.
This also had an effect on the Gallic kingdom of Galatia. The Gauls of Ancyra had long been Roman vassals, however after the tetrarch Diotarus seized control of the Kingdom, the Romans invaded Galatia and made it into a province of the Empire.
In the West, however, the Gauls had a different fate. The great General Julius Caesar invaded the region in 59 BC to expel the Helvetians, and later to prevent the anti-Roman coalition of the Veleti. However, in 50 BC, Gaul mostly under control, the Seleucid ruler Antiochus VI Grypus invaded Cilicia. Caesar was recalled east, to lead an attack on the Seleucid city of Antioch, while a friendly tribal chief was proclaimed King of Celtia, while the Aquitanian lands became a Roman province. Celtia would remain a loyal Roman client state.
During the period of Seleucus V Bactrianos, a second Gallic War broke out, this time when the Germans and Belgians attacked Celtia and Roman possessions in the region. With Seleucid attention diverted to India and the East, the Romans were able to repulse the attack, and took much of southern Germania as the province of Germania Australia, while the Belgic lands eventually became part of Celtia.

Rulers of Rome


Octavian Dynasty

Octavian 27 BC - 1 AD

Julius 1 AD - 45 AD

Julian 45 AD - 47 AD

Tiberian Dynasty

Tiberius I 47 AD - 51 AD

Tiberius II 52 AD - 87 AD

Augustus 87 AD - 89 AD

Tiberius III 90 AD - 101 AD

Marius 101 AD - 119 AD

Illyrian Dynasty

Marcus 119-130 AD

(assorted claimants)



Lucian Dynasty

Lucius I 167 AD - 177 AD

Lucius II 177 AD - 183 AD

Lucius III 183 - 191 AD

Lucius IV 191 - 204 AD

Lucius V 204 - 217 AD

Dynastic Interregnum

Hadrianus 217 - 229 AD

In 229 AD began the Time of Five Lucii, where five claimants, all going by the name Lucius, claimed the Imperial Mantle. It only ended in 240, when the fifth Lucius managed to have the rest killed. From then on, he went by Lucius Victorius.

Victorian Dynasty

Lucius Victorius 240 - 247 AD

Lucian 247 - 289 AD

Lucius VI 289-300 AD

Romulus 300 - 319 AD

Second Lucian Dynasty

Lucius VII 320 - 341 AD

Lucius VIII 341 - 352 AD


Frankish Dynasty

Chlovius I the Conqueror 352 - 391 AD

Chlovius II the Christian 392 - 400 AD

Merovius I the Fruitful 401 - 432 AD

Theodorius I the Learned 432 - 435 AD

Childerius I the Fierce 435 - 441 AD

Theodorius II the Short-Lived 441 AD

Childerius II the Fratricide 441 - 450 AD


Just due north of the civilized client state of Gallia sits an entirely different land. Similar to Gaul before the Roman conquest, the island called Britannia by Roman cartographers established its own Kingdoms, the most noteworthy being Trinovantium. Julius Caesar made one expedition to the island during his subjugation of Gallia, and during this time the King was Imanuentius. Imanuentius formed an alliance of convenience with the Roman invaders, however he was killed by the warlord Cassivellaunus. Julius Caesar returned to Gaul, and failed to honor his alliance with Imanuentius. However, the Trinovantes rose up under King Mandubracius, and cut down many of the Catuvellauni tribe of which Cassivellanunus belonged. The Trinovantes went on to dominate the island, expelling Belgic invaders, and subjugating the Iceni, Cantiaci, Regnenses, Atrebates, Belgae and Durotriges tribes before Mandubracius' death. Under his successor, the King Addedomarus, a more civilized sort of government arose based off the Gallian Kingdom. The powerful Dobunni were cut down in battle and incorporated into the Kingdom, while a rivalry began with the also-powerful state of Dumnonia. He was succeeded by Dubnovellaunus, however, he and his successor Kings are lost to the records- no great conquests are recorded until the fall of the northern Cortiani under King Mandubracius II in 34 AD. This led to the formation of the Dumnonian Confederacy between the Dumnonii, Demetae, Ordovices, and the Silures to combat Trinovantium. In 41 AD a long and inconclusive war between the Confederates and Trinovantium began, lasting intermittently until 50 AD when a treaty of peace was made.
It was here the Trinovantes began to face problems from within. The Cantiaci rebelled several times with Gallic (though not Roman) aid, only to be put down. In 59 AD, the Trinovantes attempted to wipe out the closely related tribe of the Iceni, by killing the royal family. However, the Queen Boudica survived, and rebelled herself with the Cortiani as allies. The Dumnonian Confederacy saw an opportunity and attacked. Soon, the Trinovantes were forced to concede the Iceni and Cortiani independence under Queen Boudica and her line. In response, many of the semi-independent tribes were forcibly absorbed into the Trinovantine state, their royal lines wiped out.
In 64 AD, Trinovantium was attacked by a Belgic tribe in the land of Cantiacia. The Belgians lay waste to the land, sacking the towns and carting off the inhabitants, while pirates occupied by the Island of Vectis. It would take years to expel the Belgians, and Vectis would remain a pirate stronghold for almost forty years, until 101 AD.
The tribes of the mountainous region of Cambria would slowly succumb to the expansion of the Dumnonian "Confederacy", a Greater Dumnonia in all but name and only marginally less centralized than Trinovantium. Meanwhile, the Brigantes were united under one tribal leader in 123 AD, and the Cornovii appealed to the Trinovantes for protection. Though the area was never truly conquered by Rome or heavily Romanized Gallia, Roman culture began drifting into the island nonetheless. Romanesque cities were constructed in the "Civilized Kingdoms of the South", as Trinovantium, Brigantium, Icenia, and Dumnonia were known, while Latin often became a language of the aristocracy next to their native Brythonic tongues, which were written in a Latin alphabet.



Around 25 AD, the preacher Jesus Christ was crucified in Nazareth. This much we can be sure of. In 450 AD, his divinity was accepted by two groups that shared somewhat of a common heritage, but were radically different. Later, a third group would arise, with a new scripture and a new doctrine.

The Alexandrian Church
And He said to Benjamin, son of Kish: "Be Benjamin no longer. Your name is Peter, for you and your descendents shall be the firm Rock upon which my Church shall stand." - The Gospel (1; 24:6)

The Alexandrian Church is the oldest and most widespread of the Christian Churches, claiming descent from the Apostle Peter and his moving of the Church into Egypt during Jewish persecution of what was seen as a heresy. The center of the Church is the Patriarchate of Alexandria, based in that city, and Egypt is the most powerful Christian nation. In fact, since 439 AD the Patriarchate has controlled the Egyptian Government, with the highest leaders being selected and approved by the Patriarch and the High Priests.
The Alexandrian Church has one holy book, called simply the Gospel. The Gospel is written in a simple form of Greek that sometimes throws in Aramaic words, fitting the idea that it was written by Peter, who was born a simple fisherman in the Great Sea. The Gospel is divided into two parts, the first describing the life of Christ. His name is never given in the book out of reverence, He is almost only referred to with the pronoun He. However, the book's Christ is a humble figure. The second part takes place much later, and is referred to as the Appendix. It details the growth of the Alexandrian Christian Community.
The Church is divided into five Patriarchates: Alexandria, whose domain includes Egypt and North Africa (excluding Africa Proper), Damascus, whose domain is in the Decapolis and the tiny Christian communities in the Himyarite Kingdom and Arabia, Jerusalem, which has dominion of Judea, Syria, Asia Minor, and Greece, Syracuse, which has dominion over Africa Proper, Italy, and points West, and Babylon, which includes everything east of the other Patriarchates. The Patriarch of Alexandria is referred to as the Supreme Patriarch.
The position of Supreme Patriarch is an odd one. In 90 AD, Peter was growing incredibly old. Christ had said that his descendants would inherit his leadership, but as is written in the Gospel: Peter had no sons, and as an only child, had no brother or nephew to act as heir. (2; 31:1). He did, however, have a daughter, who was called Sophia due to her great wisdom. According to the Appendix, when the dilemma was brought before Peter, he said: He said that my children would be the next Patriarch. If you believe He was truly the one God among us, then why do you hesitate? (2; 33:10) At Peter's death soon after, her daughter was proclaimed with the title of Patriarch (despite the title meaning "Father") as the head of the Church. Since then, the Patriarchate of Alexandria has followed female-line succession, while the other Patriarchates have male-line succession with their founding Apostles.
Theologically, the Alexandrian Church believes in One God, inseparable. Jesus is explained as a human aspect of God, not born but brought by Angels as an infant down to the home of Mary, the one chosen to act as mother. The Church rejects the Jewish texts as corrupted, believing that while the originals held truth, corrupt Jewish leaders subverted and twisted them to become useless except as glimpses into what the original truth could have been. A popular doctrine, though not an officially sanctioned one, is that of Egyptian Redemption. The doctrine states that Egypt fell into the hands of powers like Babylon, Assyria, Persia, and the Greeks because of their sin of keeping the Hebrews in Slavery. When the Jews rejected Peter and the Christians, the Egyptians welcomed them, thus "redeeming" the Egyptians and the passing of the title of Chosen People onto them. This is often criticized, however, especially due to the fact that Egypt was still a powerful nation for hundreds of years after the Hebrews were freed from Slavery.

Supreme Patriarchs of the Alexandrian Church

Peter 25-90 AD

Sophia I 90-127 AD

Sophia II 127-153 AD

Sophia III 153-180 AD

Sophia IV 180-190 AD

Interregnum 190-200 AD

Cleopatra I 201-215 AD

Sophia V 215-217 AD

Cleopatra II 217-245 AD

Sophia VI 246-281 AD

Interregnum 281-290 AD

Lucia I 290-312 AD

Cleopatra III 312-323 AD

Lucia II 324-345 AD

Sophia VII 345-379 AD

Sophia VIII 379-399 AD

Lucia III 400-428 AD

Cleopatra Sophia 430-450 AD

The Frankish Church
And lo, did Jupiter look down on the world and see sin upon sin being committed. At this he was distraught, and threatened to destroy the world. But Lucina [Juno] stayed his mighty hand, saying "Shall you destroy them without giving them a chance?" - The Founding Legend

The polytheistic Frankish Church, usually not seen as Christian by other denominations, is a combination of Christianity with the Roman pantheon that is practiced throughout most of mainland Italy, Hispania and Gallia, arising during the Frankish Kingdom of Rome, directly competing with the Alexandrian Patriarchate of Syracuse which is strong on Sicily. According to the various Legends that make up the holy writ of the faith, Christ was in fact Jupiter in disguise, to see if the world was worthy of existence. When the crowds of Jews threatened to kill Christ/Jupiter, he left them, and came to Rome, where the test was again given. This part is criticized by outsiders, as there is no evidence of any major preacher coming to Rome outside of the religious legends. The Frankish faith is highly evangelical, believing that the entire world needs to truly believe or Jupiter may have a change of heart and destroy the world after all. For this reason, many clerics of the faith have gone into Gallia, the Civilized Kingdoms of Britannia (and even far north to barbaric Caledonia), and even the wilds of Germany to convert people to this faith.
The Frankish Church has a centralized leadership based in the Senate of Clerics. The Senate is controlled completely by the King of Rome, who is considered the head of the Church. The Senate of Clerics is only responsible for doctrine and canon, however, and individual clerics (especially those outside of Rome) have much autonomy in making decisions. The Visigoths have accepted the religion and have enforced it on their people, though they claim an alternate Senate is the True one in Narbo Martius as they refuse to be ruled by Rome. The Christian groups in Britain (mostly in Icenia) do pay allegiance to the Roman Clerical Senate and accept the King in Rome as their spiritual (not Temporal) head.

Armenian Christianity

I do not come to destroy the law, neither that nor to eradicate the Prophets. No, I say to you that my coming was to fulfill the law, and to bring about a new promise to my people (Lu 14:11)

The Armenian Church is first dated from 210 AD, but claims heritage from a group that rejected the followers of Peter who went to Alexandria. The Armenian Church has the largest body of scripture, calling the entire Hebrew Scripture canonical, while also adding four new Interpretations of the Life of Jesus, or simply Interpretations. These are the Interpretation of Lucius, the Interpretation of Judas, the Interpretation of the Thessalonians, and the Combined Interpretation. The first two were supposedly written very soon after the death of Jesus Christ, while the third was written by a Christian group at Thessalonica, and the final comes from an unknown source. The Armenian Church believes in one God, the God of Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob, but a God who is also a Divine Trinity. This Trinity, where the Father aspect, Jesus Christ, and the Holy Spirit, who plays a major role in the Combined Interpretation, make up one united God but are separate aspects, is a rather confusing subject that is not even sufficiently explained in the Interpretations or the later Armenian Encylicals.

The Armenian Church grew to prominence very late. The faith had slowly grown in Armenia when it was under foreign rule, but was only adopted as a state faith in 446, when the prince Artesvasdes was placed on a new Armenian throne after the Seleucid revolt. As a state religion, it grew in leaps and bounds, and has started to compete with the Alexandrian Church in Assyria and Mesopotamia.


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