Following British ships impressing British born sailors
serving on American ships, the US declares war on Great Britain. A force under
General Hull prepares to invade Canada. Federalist opposition to the war is
vocal from the beginning.
After being driven out of Canada, Hull surrenders at Detroit.
Following the reluctance of the militia, US forces are defeated at the Battle of Queenston.
General Winchester surrenders following defeat at the Battle of Raisin River. Federalist opposition increases following this string of defeats, and public support in the North Eastern States increases.
The first American victory on land in the war sees the Capture of York in Canada.
A bad month for the British sees further American victories when the British fail in the siege of Fort Meig, the attack on Sacketts Harbour, and lose Fort George.
The British are repulsed from Fort Stephenson, although their Creek allies capture Fort Mims.
Commodore Perry is wounded in the Battle of Lake Erie, which ends in a pyrric victory for the British [POD].
A small American force, all that could cross the lake without total control, is defeated by the British at the Battle of Thames.
With the defeats of Canada leaving American forces in disarray, the British capture Fort Niagra and Buffalo.
A secret cabal of New York Federalists and disillusioned Republicans meets under the leadership of Congressman Morris Miller, they decide to contact their fellow party members in New England to seek support for a separate peace with Great Britain.
Reinforced with troops from Britain and several more ships, the British win the Second Battle of Erie, driving the Americans from the Lake.
Battle of Chippewa sees General Jackson decisively defeat the Creek Indians, but his victory is eclipsed by the decisive defeat of the Americans at the Battle of Lundy’s Lane.
Following their string of victories, the British break off peace talks with the Americans in Paris.
The British win the battle of Washington and burn many governmental buildings to the ground. The US government establishes a temporary capital in Philadelphia. That night a tornado strikes the area, quenching the fires and destroying the Potomac bridge.
Supported by ships from Lake Erie, the British win the Battle of Lake Champlain and drive the Americans from the lake.
The British are turned back by a determined defence at the Battle of Baltimore. They retire to Washington to consolidate and regroup. They rebuild the fortifications and the bridge over the Potomac, as well as constructing a hug fortress on the Virginia border.
Governor Caleb Strong, encouraged by the quiet support that he receives from the New England States and New York, contacts General Sir John Sherbrooke, Governor of Nova-Scotia, enquiring about the possibility of a separate peace and alliance. The Governor responds favourably and Strong calls for a secret convention on Hartford Connecticut.
Hartford Convention. Delegates from the New England States and New York meet in Hartford, under the leadership of Timothy Pickering. Under his fire-branded leadership, the Convention votes to seek a separate peace with Great Britain.
The British attempt to storm New Orelans, but are repulsed with heavy losses. [POD] General Packenham ends the battle before his forces are decimated and re-embarks onto his waiting ships.
Packeham’s army land and take Mobile from the tiny American garrison.
Encouraged by the presence of British forces in the area, Western Florida revolts. This revolt spreads to the other areas of the old “Free and Independent Republic of West Florida ”, now simply called the West Florida Republic (WFR) The revolt is supported by Packenham and supplied from the British West Indies.
March to October
Supported by irregulars from Florida, Packenham cuts Jackson off in New Orleans and lays siege to the city. Other columns begin taking back previous WFR territory.
Congressman Miller, supported by several militia units, arrests Republican leaders in Albany and announces martial law in New York.
The New England States and New York sign a separate peace with the British, who receive a favourable border between Canada and Massachusetts in what will later be the state of Maine. The participating states recall their militias and volunteers from American formations.
Southern States militias attack North Eastern units returning to their states. British troops nearby come to their aid.
Jackson surrenders New Orleans and receives parole for its Garrison, which departs for the North.
The Federated States of America is formed by the Hartford Convention. The convention elects Caleb Strong of Massachusetts as temporary President and they form a cabinet. Great Britain immediately recognises the new country and ships troops in to fortify their positions in Washington and reinforce the FSA’s southern border.
President Madison declares the North Eastern states treasonous and declares war on them, calling on loyal Americans in those states to rise up. The resulting discord is actually rather subdued, although several militia units from those states remain loyal to the US.
An American attempt to retake Washington is repulsed with heavy losses, including General Winfield Scott.
A combined British and FSA force defeat an American army under General Jackson at the Battle of New York.
An FSA and British force lays siege to Philadelphia, sealing President Madison in the city.
After 3 months of siege, President Madison seeks peace. Major General Sir Edward Pakenham, fresh from action in the South, acts as the King’s agent in the talks. A cease fire is in place.
A final peace is signed between the US and the FS and Great Britain. The Treaty of Boston recognises the following :-
1) The British receive the Michigan territory and the disputed Oregon territory. They also receive territory near New Orleans. Washington is returned to the USA.
2) The Federated States of America are officially recognised by the United States. There will be voluntary and free migration of Federalist supporters and disaffected US loyalists between the two nations.
3) The West Florida Republic is recognised by the USA, FSA and Great Britain. Their territory is recognised as being that of the original British territory in 1767, with the exception of the lands now held by the British, which the WFR acknowledges as British territory
4) The Indiana and Illinois territories are to be allowed a referendum of voters to determine which American nation they wish to join as States.
5) The FSA and WFR to allow the US free use of their ports at Boston for 20 years.
6) North Atlantic fishing rights to be split between the FSA and Great Britain for perpetuity.
The US reluctantly agrees to the terms. Although the Southern States are outraged at losing a war, they secretly welcome the freedom from tariffs imposed by New England states.. The treaty is narrowly passed in Congress, but the Republican leadership is badly discredited.
In a joint referendum, Illinois votes to join the FSA and Indiana joins the US. Given a western colony, the FSA begins heavy development and westward migration.
Early to Mid 1800s
Shocked into action after losing such large territorial expanses, the US brings Arkansas, Mississippi, Iowa and what is left of Florida into the Union.
The State of Maine is recognised, bringing the FSA a total of 8 states to the Federation.
The FSA buys lower Michigan from Great Britain, who rename their smaller northern holding the Hannover Territory.
Britain divides the North Western Territory into Four provinces – Packenham (Washington in OTL), British Columbia, Oregon, and New Wessex (Idaho in OTL). They also name their Gulf Coast territories as Victoria with the capital at New Orleans, renamed Wellington.
Separatists originally from the WFR in Texas secede from Mexico. They are supported clandestinely by Great Britain and the WFR. The Republic of Texas is created.
Desperate for more land, the USA begins an aggressive anti Indian campaign, sending thousands of Native Americans fleeing to British protection in Hannover and Victoria. By 1840, almost the entire West is under American rule, albeit sparsely populated.
Using the border dispute with Texas as a distraction, the USA declares war on Mexico shortly after they declare war on Texas. Texas screams for aid, and Great Britain and the WFR answer.
Wisconsin votes to join the FSA as opposed to the USA, causing major tensions between the nations. Border skirmishes occur, but the wars with Mexcio keep the USA distracted and British threats of support quell American ardour for war. An uneasy peace comes to exist.
Following shattering losses against the USA and Texas and her allies, Mexico agrees to a humiliating peace. The Treaty of San Antonio results in the following :-
1) Texas receives the New Mexico and Arizona territories,
as well as Sonora and Chihuahua.
2) The USA receives California and the entire Baja peninsula.
3) Britain receives the Yucatan.
With a massive slave holder majority, and a succession of Southern Democrat administrations, slavery is extended throughout the new US territories, much to the distress of Ohio, Indiana, Delaware, and Pennsylvania.
The US abandons Washington as its capital city. They name a new capital at the city of Terminus, which they rename Atlanta. The Federal District is reabsorbed into Maryland.
Great Britain purchases Alaska from the Empire of Russia, adding it to its North American territories. This is largely a result of Russia’s defeat in the Crimean wars and is seen as an opportunity to rebuild his military by the Tsar. It should be noted that an FSA expeditionary force fought alongside the British in the campaign.
The slavery issue comes to a head, with the state legislatures of Ohio, Delaware, New Jersey, Indiana, and Pennsylvania vote to secede from the union. They plead to the FSA for help and membership, and militias are called up. British forces in Canada and Victoria also prepare for action, and two fleets are dispatched from London.
The FSA votes to accept the rebel states, and the US immediately declares war. Great Britain honours its mutual defence pact with the FSA and declares war on the US.
Encouraged by Great Britain, Texas and the WFR also declare war.
1861 – 1863
A series of bloody battles ensues in the Third American war. Despite early successes, the US loses its three front war. The results of the war are as follows :-
1) Britain adds the lower third of Arkansas to Victoria and receives monetary compensation from the US.
2) The FSA’s ownership of the five rebel states is recognised and they become states in the FSA.
3) The WFR receives the US state of Florida.
4) Texas receives part of what is now Ohklahoma.
4) The USA is entitled to keep its slaves without outside interference, but the import of new slaves is to be outlawed.
The West Florida Republic renames itself the Federation of Gulf States (FGS). North Florida, South Florida, Alabama and Mississippi are recognised as states, and a more federalised form of government on the pattern of the FSA is adopted. Slavery is made illegal in the FGS, and what few slaves are in private hands are freed.
The Republic of Texas renames itself as the Commonwealth of Texas (COT), with Texas, Sonora, Chihuahua, Arizona, and Houston (New Mexico in OTL) as provinces. They adopt a less centralised form of government than the FSA and the FGS, although they form a close alliance with the latter.
Great Britain recognises its Northern American territories as a semi-independent nation as the Dominion of Canada. Victoria and Hannover remain under direct British administration and are turned into military bastions. Following the Indian Wars waged by the USA, more than 60% of the population of these two territories are Native American.
The FSA purchases land in Africa and founds the nation of Liberia. Charitable donations see tens of thousands of escaped and freed slaves shipped there from the FSA, FGS and COT.
Great Britain purchases the Congo rights from Belgium and offers a similar arrangement as Liberia to its North American allies, as well as providing an opportunity for educated Asian Indians and Blacks from other parts of the Empire as administrators.
Following discovery of mineral wealth in the Congo, European settlers flood into the country despite horrendous losses to disease. The large proportion of “civilised” and educated Black and Indian people in the territory keeps things amicable and remarkably equal.
The FGS and COT apply for British Dominion in a similar fashion to that of Canada. Since the last ten years have seen them become more and more client states, Great Britain agrees. The Dominion agreement is even looser than that of Canada. They are renamed the Dominion of Texas and the Dominion of Florida respectively. Britain turns over Victoria to the Dominion of Florida with exacting stipulations about the treatment of the Native American population.
Massive immigration from Europe swells the population of the FSA, and the Dominions, all of which both rapidly industrialise to British levels. To ease occasional periods of over whelming numbers, Great Britain agrees to sponsor many Europeans to their African colonies and give them land. The only substantial influx of population to the USA is the Irish, who avoid the FSA and the dominions due to their close alliance with Britain.
Germany grabs what land is left in Africa and begins making cautious diplomatic efforts with the USA as a possible North American counterpoint to the British allies.
Spain attacks the Dominion of Florida. Great Britain immediately declares war. Spain is soundly thrashed by the combined weight of Britain and its North American allies. The peace treaty results in:-
1) Cuba becoming a province of the Dominion of Florida.
2) The Phillipines becoming British territory.
3) Spain being forced to recognise any independent nations in its American territories that apply for international recognition. It will receive trade and monetary concessions for this recognition.
Possibilities and Consequences…
(Might be considered
The World Wars
The USA stays neutral in both wars, despite its friendly relationship with Germany, whereas an enlarged and more populous Canada and Britain-friendly North American states get involved from the beginning, hastening an allied victory and (possibly) averting the Russian Revolution. Likewise, the North American allies get involved in WW2 from the beginning, the Battle of the Atlantic is won more easily, and the Allies again win more quickly.
The Empire is not as stressed financially due to shorter world wars, but does de-evolve. Hannover eventually becomes part of the Dominion of Canada. Liberia and Congo are not left to their own devices and is supported financially and militarily by the FSA and Britain, establishing a model for coexistence that lessens the violence of African Nationalist liberation wars.
A closer, more cooperative and powerful British Commonwealth (still referred to as “The Empire”) comes into being, centred around the home islands and the Six Dominions – Canada, Florida, Texas, Pacifica (Australia and New Zealand), The Cape, and India. Many other nations once in Britain’s sphere, even those who declare republican forms of government, remain closely allied military and trade partners with the Empire.
Given American proclivities, I would imagine that increasing Republicanism would be evident through the late 20th and early 21st centuries, eventually seeing most, if not all, of the Dominions as allied republics to a Great Britain gradually being reduced in world importance, but that nonetheless retains more power and influence than in OTL.
The Irish Question
Following the example of tolerance and effective home rule evident in the dominions, Great Britain rules Ireland with a far lighter hand. While never officially a Dominion, Ireland achieves effective home rule in the 1920s, while recognising the British monarch as their head of state. There is always a strong republican leaning minority, but given the reliance on Great Britain that Ireland has for defence and trade, most Irish people just get on with it.
Communism and Cold
With the Bolshevik revolution either avoided entirely or crushed by a White Army supported by the Empire, communism does not become a major issue on the world stage, although several socialist ideas do permeate the Empire in the shape of a limited social welfare state being in effect in most dominions. Thus we have no nuclear stand off (although I am sure that the bomb is about), no Cold War, and probably a slower advance into space, or indeed technology in general, as a result.
The most likely ascendance of a Cold War would probably come from the Middle East. As in our time, a wave of fundamentalism could sweep the region. A preserved Ottoman Empire, which would probably not have gotten involved in WW1 given the increased allied strength from the beginning, would fall to fanatical Imams. Moslem sectarian difficulties aside, a more powerful and fundamentalist Islamic sphere of Influence is very possible, even taking bites out of the Dominion of India (Pakistan). I do not see a possibility of technological/industrial paraity with the West though.
Territories of the Dominion of Canada (16)
Packenham, Oregon, British Columbia, New Wessex, Alberta, Manitoba, New Brunswick, Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Nunavut, Ontario, Prince Edward Island, Quebec, Saskatchewan, Yukon, Alaska
Territories of the Dominion of Texas (6)
South Texas, North Texas, Arizona, Houston, Sonora, Chihuahua
and Territories of the Dominion of Florida (6)
West Florida, East Florida,
Alabama, Victoria, Mississippi, Cuba
in the Federated States of America (16)
New Hampshire, New York, Vermont, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Connecticut, Maine, Wisconsin, Illinois, Idaho, Michigan, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Delaware, New Jersey
States in the United
States of America (21)
Virginia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia, North Alabama, North Mississippi, Tennessee, Kansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, Nebraska, North Dakota, South Dakota, California, Baja, Wyoming, Iowa, Minnesota, Colorado, Montana, Utah
Comments and thoughts?